|Chromium picolinate Usage And Synthesis|
|Product Features||Chromium picolinate appears as fine purple crystalline powder with good fluidity. It is chemically stable at room temperature and is slightly soluble in water but insoluble in ethanol, wherein the chromium is in the trivalent form. The whole molecule structure is electrically neutral and has hydrophobic properties. Therefore, it is possible to perform the trans-membrane absorption on the intact structure with the molecular structure being similar to the GTF part. In 1977, Toepfer thought that GTF is the biologically active form of chromium with its structure being the complex formed between nicotinic acid chromium and aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine and cysteine. The GTF-like structure of chromium picolinate class determines its own excellent absorption rate and can more effectively play its biological function. It is reported that the absorption rate of formulation of ordinary chromium was about 0.5% while the absorption rate of chromium is 2%-5% (Anderson, 1996).
Chromium picolinate is a health supplement for strengthening muscles and promoting weight. It can increase the amount of the active AMP protein kinase (AMPK) related with metabolism pathway inside the skeletal cells, thereby improving energy balance and insulin function. The main effects are as follows:
1, It can improve the proportion of lean meat, reduce fat as well as improve carcass quality.
2, It can improve the capability of stress resistance and immunity. Stress can cause reduced animal production while niacin chromium, through its anti-stress effect, may increase the production of animal products.
Chromium is an essential mineral, it is the indispensable substance for the release of active insulin during the carbohydrates, fat and protein metabolism. In August 2005, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) had approved the production of chromium picolinate, and confirmed that it is safe for being applied to the treatment of human insulin resistance and type II diabetes. The main basis for FDA for made this judgment was the early, randomized, and double-blinded and placebo therapy conducted by Dr. Cefalu who had shown that chromium picolinate can significantly improves the insulin sensitivity of the patients of the high-risk diabetic.
The dietary reference Intakes amount of chromium (adults) provided by our country is AI = 50ug per day, UL= 500 ug per day for Chinese Residents.
In the "Declaration of nutrient supplements and review Provisions", the minimum amount of chromium is 15ug/day while the maximum amount is 150ug/day.
|Chromium||Chromium is one of 12 kinds of essential trace metal element. In natural environment, chromium is presented in various valence states from Cr to Cr6 + with Cr, Cr2 +, Cr3 +, Cr6 + being the most widely existed. Cr3 + is an essential trace element in the human body and is the form of the entire chromium inside human body. It is the component comprising glucose tolerance factor with the insulin-like effects. Therefore, it can promote glucose utilization of cells, promote the oxidative phosphorylation of glucose, promote glycogen promote synthesis as well as improve the stability of insulin, thereby reducing blood sugar level. Its physiological role has been increasingly drawn the attention of researchers. Studies have shown that: chromium is closely related to glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, protein metabolism and nucleic acid metabolism. It has also found that many kinds of animals have strong chromium tolerance with the capability of tolerating 3000 mg/kg of chromium oxide and 1000 mg/kg of chromium chloride. Chromium picolinate, as organic chromium preparation, has their safety being drawn a growing concern. In livestock production, chromium picolinate can significant promotion effect on alleviating environmental stress, increasing lean meat rate and increasing the endurance and is thus widely used. However, for their usage amount, although some countries have ratified chromium picolinate to be added to poultry diets, currently there has not yet of officially released minimum requirement and maximum tolerated dose data of animals. Studies have reported that normal physiological plasma concentration of chromium is 0.1-2.1μg/ml (Cerulli et al., 1998), the physiological concentrations of chromium in human liver was 5.4-470ηg / g liver wet weight (-0.1-9μM) (Versieck, 1985). Excessive addition (much higher than physiological dose) may produce toxicity DNA and cytotoxicity.
The above information is edited by the chemicalbook of Dai Xiongfeng.
|Precautions||At present, according the research of domestic and international research institutions and Nutrition Institute, long-term intake of chromium ≥1000ug/day can easily lead to poisoning. The maximal allowable consumption amount for health food is 250ug/day.
1, excess iron and zinc can hinder and inhibit the absorption of chromium.
2, manganese and chromium have mutually reinforcing roles in the regulation of glucose metabolism.
3, chromium and magnesium can synergistically promote the sugar conversion.
4, there is no need for increasing daily sugar protein and lysine levels.
|Uses||It can be used as a medicine and health products as well as food additives.
Chromium picolinate (CrPic) is taken as the supplement or alternative medicine for type 2 diabetes. Experimental evidence has indicated CrPic boost glucose uptake via activating P38 MAPK. Chromium is thought to be able to enhance the action of insulin, thereby increasing insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes patients