|Tartaric acid occurs as colorless monoclinic crystals, or a white or almost white crystalline powder. It is odorless, with an extremely tart taste.
|L-(+)-Tartaric Acid is a naturally occurring chemical compound found in berries, grapes and various wines. It provides antioxidant properties and contributes to the sour taste within these products.
|In the soft drink industry, confectionery products, bakery products, gelatin desserts, as an acidulant. In photography, tanning, ceramics, manufacture of tartrates. The common commercial esters are the diethyl and dibutyl derivatives used for lacquers and in textile printing. Pharmaceutic aid (buffering agent).
|ChEBI: A tetraric acid that is butanedioic acid substituted by hydroxy groups at positions 2 and 3.
|Tartaric acid occurs naturally in many fruits as the free acid or in combination with calcium, magnesium, and potassium.
Commercially, L-(＋)-tartaric acid is manufactured from potassium tartrate (cream of tartar), a by-product of wine making. Potassium tartrate is treated with hydrochloric acid, followed by the addition of a calcium salt to produce insoluble calcium tartrate. This precipitate is then removed by filtration and reacted with 70% sulfuric acid to yield tartaric acid and calcium sulfate.
|Tartaric acid is used in beverages, confectionery, food products, and pharmaceutical formulations as an acidulant. It may also be used as a sequestering agent and as an antioxidant synergist. In pharmaceutical formulations, it is widely used in combination with bicarbonates, as the acid component of effervescent granules, powders, and tablets.
Tartaric acid is also used to form molecular compounds (salts and cocrystals) with active pharmaceutical ingredients to improve physicochemical properties such as dissolution rate and solubility.
|Moderately toxic by intravenous route. Mildly toxic by ingestion. Reaction with silver produces the unstable silver tartrate. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.
|Tartaric acid is widely used in food products and oral, topical, and parenteral pharmaceutical formulations. It is generally regarded as a nontoxic and nonirritant material; however, strong tartaric acid solutions are mildly irritant and if ingested undiluted may cause gastroenteritis.
An acceptable daily intake for L-(＋)-tartaric acid has not been set by the WHO, although an acceptable daily intake of up to 30 mg/kg body-weight for monosodium L-(＋)-tartrate has been established.
LD50 (mouse, IV): 0.49 g/kg
|The bulk material is stable and should be stored in a well-closed container in a cool, dry place.
|Tartaric acid is incompatible with silver and reacts with metal carbonates and bicarbonates (a property exploited in effervescent preparations).
|GRAS listed. Accepted for use as a food additive in Europe. Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (IM and IV injections; oral solutions, syrups and tablets; sublingual tablets; topical films; rectal and vaginal preparations). Included in nonparenteral medicines licensed in the UK. Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal Ingredients.